We commemorate a new anniversary of Simón Jose Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar and Palacios, who was born in Caracas, Venezuela, on July 24, 1783, and died in Santa Marta, Colombia, on December 17, 1830.
During his twenty years of revolutionary activity, Bolivar developed a complex thought. In the first phase (1810-1819) it reflected the Spanish-American awakening: it led the "Admirable Campaign", wrote the "Letter of Jamaica" (1815), promoted the Congress of Angostura (1819), promoted triumphs in Apure, Boyacá, Carabobo, Bomboná, Pichincha, Junín and Ayacucho. He maintained: "We are not Europeans, we are not Indians, but a medium species between the aborigines and the Spaniards. Americans by birth and Europeans by rights, we are in the conflict of disputing to the natives the titles of possession and of maintaining us in the country that gave birth to us, against the opposition of the invaders; So our case is the most extraordinary and complicated. " And he warned: "I wish ... to see in America the greatest nation in the world."
In the second phase (1819-1828), Bolivar was an institutional thinker, centered on the government of the emerging republics: strong executive, constitutionalism, centralism, questioning liberties and democracy, merely abstract and weak, as well as simple Republican institutions, without being accompanied by the liberation of Indians and blacks. He proposed to liquidate slavery and indige- nous servitude, and foresaw the distribution of land. It had to exercise its government with authority and firmness, which provoked the reactions of the regional oligarchies.
He set out to build the "great American homeland", building the Republic of Colombia (Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador), and dreaming of Spanish-American unity, from which he excluded the United States, claiming: "The United States Seem destined by Providence to plague America of miseries in the name of freedom. "
In the third phase (1828-1830), Bolivar developed the awareness of disappointment. He wrote: "The situation of America is so singular and so horrible that it is not possible for any man to flatter himself to keep order for a long time or even a city ... Posterity never saw a picture as dreadful as that offered by America , More for the future than for the present ... I have plowed in the sea ". The independence revolution and social transformations had been abandoned, because the power of the emerging republics passed through the oligarchical elites of landowners and merchants, who pushed the patriots and independence patriots away and razed them with Revolutionary project.
Of the emancipatory rise, Bolivar happened to be the great republican constructor and fell in disgrace by trying radical social reforms. That explains the evolution of his thinking. However, at the end of his life, Bolivar at least managed to cry: "I do not aspire to any other glory than to the consolidation of Colombia. You must all work for the invaluable good of the Union. "